Authored scientific journal articles and book chapters

Publications
Journal Articles (Peer-reviewed)
•Martinez Pereira, Y, Pizzi, R (2012) Echocardiography of exotic animals. Ultrasound, the Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
• Pizzi, R, Cracknell, J, David, S, Laughlin, D, Broadis, N, Rouffignac, M, Duong, DV, Girling, S, Hunt, M (2011) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under field conditions in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) rescued from illegal bile farming in Vietnam. Veterinary Record doi:10.1136/vr.d4985
• Pizzi, R, Girling, Bell, A, Tjolle, A, Devine, C (2011) Laparoscopic assisted cryptorchidectomy in an adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Veterinary Medicine International, Article ID 131368, doi: 10.4061/2011/131368 , Open access online at: http://www.sage-hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2011/131368/
• Girling, SJ, Pizzi, Cock, A, Beard, P, H (2011) A case of fatal Cowpox virus infection of two squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus. Veterinary Record doi:10.1136/vr.d4005
• Del-Pozo, J., Girling, S., Pizzi, R., Mancinelli, E. and Else, R. (2011) Severe Necrotising Myocarditis caused by Serratia marcescans Infection in an Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), Journal of Comparative Pathology, 144:334-338, , doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.11.001
• Nicoll, A, Pizzi, R (under review) The effect of viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) vaccination on the longevity of pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Scotland. Veterinary Record
• Lanevschi-Pietersma, A, Boroffa, S, Martinez Pereira, Y, Penzo, C, Pizzi, R, Rudorf, H, Tartarelli, C (2011) Telemedicine: a time management and learning tool for vets and service clinics and what it can offer to pet owners. The European Journal of Companion Animal Practice, vol 21 (1), April, 73-76.
Pizzi, R, Cracknell, J, Dalrymple, L (2010) Post-mortem evaluation of left flank laparoscopic access in an adult female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Veterinary Medicine International. Online:
 
http://www.sage-hindawi.com/journals/vmi/aip.789465.html
• Pizzi, R (2009) Veterinarians and taxonomic chauvinism: the dilemma of parasite conservation. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 18, 4, 279-282.
• Pizzi, R (2009) Parasites of Tarantulas (THeraposidae). Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 18, 4, 283-288.
• Pizzi, R., Martinez Pereiria, Y., Feltrer Rambaud, Y., Strike, T., Flach, E., Rendle, M., Routh A. (2009) Secundum atrial septal defect in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The Veterinary Record, 164, 472-473.
• Pizzi, R. (2009) Cystoscopic urolith removal in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), The Veterinary Record.
• Pizzi, R. Gordon, J.C., Flach, E.J., Routh, A., Clarke, B., Boardman, W. (2008) Capillaria hepatica (Calodium hepaticum) in primates in a Zoological collection in the UK. The Veterinary Record, 163, 690-691.
• Pizzi, R., Hagen, R.U., Meredith, A.L. (2007) Intermittent colic and intussusception due to a caecal polyp in a rabbit. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 16, 2, 113-117.
• Pizzi, R., Goodman, G., Gunn-Moore, D., Meredith, A., Keeble, E. (2005) Pieris japonica intoxication in an African spurred tortoise (Geochelone sulcata). The Veterinary Record.
• Pizzi, R., Miller, J. (2005) Amputation of a Mycobacterium marinum infected hindlimb in an African Bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus). The Veterinary Record.

Books and Book Chapters:
• Pizzi, R (in Press) Small exotic species endosurgery. In: Clinical manual of Small Animal Endosurgery, Blackwell Publishing, (eds Hodgson-Moore, A, Ragni, R)
• Pizzi, R (In Press) Thoracoscopy. In: Clinical manual of Small Animal Endosurgery, Blackwell Publishing (eds Hodgson-Moore, A, Ragni, R)
• Pizzi, R (In preparation) Textbook of Rabbit Surgery, Elsevier publishing, a companion volume to the current Textbook of Rabbit Medicine by F Harcourt-Brown.
• Brown, D, Pizzi, (In Press) Surgery, In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Animal Nursing, BSAVA
• Pizzi, R (2012) Spiders. In: Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd edition (ed Lewbert, G.A.), Blackwell Publishing
• Pizzi, R. (2010) Invertebrates. In: BSAVA manual of Exotic Pets (ed. Meredith, A.)
• Pizzi, R. (2008) Initial examination, triage, and hospitalisation. In: BSAVA manual of falcons, pigeons, and passerines (eds Chitty, J., Lierz, M.).
• Pizzi, R. (2008) Invertebrates. In: The 5-minute exotic animal consult (ed. Mayer, J).
• Pizzi, R. (2007) Disease management in ex-situ invertebrate conservation programs. In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 6th edition (eds Fowler, M.E., Miller, R.E.).
• Pizzi, R. (2006) Spiders. In: Invertebrate Medicine (ed Lewbert, G.A.), Iowa State Press.
• Pizzi, R. (2006) contributing author to: Self-assessment colour review of rabbit medicine, (eds Keeble, E., Meredith, A) Manson publishing.

International Conference Papers:
• Pizzi, R (2012) Welfare and behavioural advantages of keyhole sterilisation of New world primates. First International New World Primate Symposium, Twycross Zoo, 17-18 March 2012
• Pizzi, R, Cracknell, J, David, S, Laughlin, S, Rouffignac, M, Girling, S, Broadis, N, Hunt, M (2011) Welfare advantages of minimally invasive assessment of abdominal disease in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) rescued from bile farming. Asia for Animals, Chengdu, China, 10-14 June.
• Pizzi, R Cracknell, J, David, S, Laughlin, D, Rouffignac, M, Broadis, N, Girling, S, Hunt, M (2011) Laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) rescued from bile farming in Vietnam. European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), Lisbon, 1-5 June.
• Cracknell, J, Girling, S, Pizzi, R , David, S, Laughlin, D, Rouffignac, M, Hunt, M, Broadis, N,  (2011) Anaesthetic considerations in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in Asiatic Black Bears (Ursus thibetanus) rescued from bile farming under field conditions. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
• Girling SJ, Pizzi, R., Harley, J., Richardson, D. and Philbey, A. (2011) Diagnosis and Management of an Outbreak of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in a Wildlife Park in Scotland. European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), Lisbon, 1-5 June.
Pizzi, R, Martinez-Pereira, Y, Flach, E, Routh, A, Middleton, V, Clark, B, Boardman, W. (2007) Patent Ductus Arteriosus in lions (Panthera leo) - do we have a genetic problem in zoos? 43rd International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animal, Edinburgh Zoo, 16-20 May.
• Boardman, W., Pizzi, R., Gibson, R., Rendle, M. (2006) Metastatic vascular calcification in adult female Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at London zoo. EEP Komodo crisis meeting, Rotterdam zoo, 15 June 2006.
• Goodman, G., Pizzi, R., Keeble, E., Hagen, R. (2006) Diagnostic imaging techniques in penguins. European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV).
• Pizzi, R., McGraw, K., Nolan, P., Gibbons, M. (2005) Novel plumage pigments, novel prey species antioxidants and immuno-modulators: implications for captive penguin nutrition. 4th European Zoo Nutrition Conference, Leipzig.
• Pizzi, R., Gibbons, M., Wood, A., MacKenzie, G., Garcia-Rueda, M.C. (2005) Using mortality and reproduction data to evaluate captive penguin nutrition. 4th European Zoo Nutrition Conference, Leipzig.
• Hagen, R., Pizzi, R., McLean, K., Goodman, G. (2005) Computed tomography to investigate the anatomy of the lower respiratory tract in penguins. European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Taxonomic chauvinism - The wildlife veterinarian & parasite conservation. British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), World Association of Wildlife Veterinarians (WAWV), and Zoological Society of London, 12-14 November, London.
• Pizzi, R. Keeble, E., Meredith, A., Goodman, G. (2004) Cervical air sac ablation in an Amazon parrot. World Association of Wildlife Veterinarians (WAWV), British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), and Zoological Society of London, 12-14 November, London.
• Pizzi, R., Meredith, A., Thomas, R. (2004) Impact of avian malaria in captive penguins at Edinburgh zoo, and relevance to wild penguins. Vth International Penguin Conference, Ushuaia, Argentina, 5-10 September.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Disease diagnosis and control in ex-situ terrestrial invertebrate conservation programs. European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), Ebeltoft, Denmark, 19-23 May 2004.


National Conference Papers:
• Pizzi, R (2011) The different frontiers of wildlife rehabilitation veterinary medicine: from welfare auditing to minimally invasive “keyhole” surgery. Wildcare 2011, Inverness, 21-22 October.
• Nicoll, A, Pizzi, R, Tjolle, A (2011) The effect of viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) vaccination on the longevity of pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Scotland. British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), 50th Anniversary conference, Cheshire, 12-13 November.
• Pizzi, R, Seddon, C, Liddell, C (2011) Minimally invasive surgical access in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), April 2011, Ashford.
• Merrifield G.D., Mullin J, Gallagher L, Pizzi R., and Holmes W.M. (2011) In Vivo High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spiders. Society of Experimental Biology, 1-4 July, Glasgow.
• Pizzi, R, Girling, S, Bell, A, Bowland, G, Brown, D, Tjolle, A, Devine, C (2010) Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in an adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), November 2010, Dudley.
Pizzi, R. (2008) Laser surgery in exotic species. British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), November 2008.
• Flach, E.J., Pizzi, R., Macgregor, S., Clark, B. (2008) Protozoal infections in Partula snails at the Zoological Society of London: 2006-2008. British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS) May 2008
• Pizzi, R. (2007) The smallest cut - operating through a keyhole: A brief history of comparative minimally invasive surgery. British Veterinary Zoological Society (BVZS), and Royal Society of Medicine (RSM), Nottingham University, 10-11 November.
• Pizzi, R., Lawrie, R., Connell, M., Simpson, J. (2007) Evaluation of a coxotibial compression test for the diagnosis of acute caudal cruciate ligament rupture in pet rabbits. British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Congress, Birmingham.
• Pizzi, R., Girling, S. (2006) Comparison of insufflation and abdominal suspension techniques in pet rabbit laparoscopic surgery. British Veterinary Zoological Society and Rabbit Welfare Trust Conference, Bristol University, 11-12 November.
• Pizzi, R., Lawrie, R. (2006) Stifle instability and caudal cruciate ligament disease in pet rabbits. British Veterinary Zoological Society and Rabbit Welfare Trust Conference, Bristol University, 11-12 November.
• Pizzi, R., Boardman, W., Gibson, R., Rendle, M., Sunter, G., Fagg, M., March, T., Stephen, I., Feltrer, Y., Twitchett, M., Clarke, B. (2006) What is killing our captive Komodo dragons? BIAZA Annual Zoo Research Symposium, 24-25 July 2006, Colchester Zoo.
• Pizzi, R., Martinez Pereira, Y., Flach, E., Routh, A., Middleton, V., Clarke, B., Boardman, W. (2006) Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in lions - do we have a genetic problem in our captive lion populations? BIAZA Annual Zoo Research Symposium, 24-25 July 2006, Colchester Zoo.
• Haywood, S., Provan, H., Pizzi, R. (2006) Developing a radiographic prognostic model in pet chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) dental disease. BVZS spring meeting, 13-14 May 2006, Whipsnade Wild Animal Park.
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Evidence based penguin nutrition. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Aquatic medicine and Surgery", Chester.
• Pizzi, R., Welsh, E. (2005) Nanocrystalline silver as an alternative to systemic antibiotics in multi-drug resistant herpetile infections. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Aquatic medicine and Surgery", Chester.
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Middle ear ablation in a green iguana (Iguana iguana) with chronic recurrent otitis media. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Aquatic medicine and Surgery", Chester.
• Duffield, M., Pizzi, R. (2005) Superbugs! The immunostimulant effects of eating marine invertebrates. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Aquatic medicine and Surgery", Chester.
• Goodman, G., Pizzi, R. (2005) A review of Cuttlefish (Cephalopoda) medicine and pathology. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Aquatic medicine and Surgery", Chester.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Slap me with a dead penguin! What we can learn from 1001 penguin post-mortems at Edinburgh zoo. Federation of Zoological Societies (FZS) International zoo research meeting, July 2004, Edinburgh Zoo.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Managing disease risk in endangered insect reintroductions. Royal Entomological Society National Meeting "Entomology 2004", University of York, 21-23 July.
• Pizzi, R. (2003) Invertebrate Masterclass. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference 2 day Autumn conference 8-9 November 2003, Edinburgh Zoo, on Infectious diseases of Exotics
• Pizzi, R., Breed, A (2002) Reptilian clinical pathology. South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R., Breed, A (2002) Current concepts in reptilian and amphibian anaesthesia and surgery. South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R., Breed, A. (2002) Herpetological clinical and diagnostic techniques. South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R., Cooper, J.E., George, S. (2002) Spider health, husbandry, and welfare in zoological collections. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Standards, Welfare and Conservation in Zoo and Exotic Practice"
• Van Wyk, J.W., Pizzi, R. (2002) How not to kill your exotic patients - common pitfalls awaiting the general practitioner. South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R. (2001) The poor mans guide to field diagnostics for wildlife; Getting the diagnosis with no money. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Zoo and exotic diagnostics".
• Pizzi, R. (2001) Terrorising the nurses: Veterinary diagnostics for Theraphosidae spiders. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, "Zoo and exotic diagnostics".

International Conference Posters
• Girling SJ, Pizzi, R., Devine, C., Martinex-Pereira, Y., Campbell-Palmer, R. and Goodman, G. (2011) Aspects of Veterinary Health Monitoring During Reintroduction of the European Beaver (Castor fiber) to the Wild in Scotland. European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), Lisbon, 1-5 June.
• Devine, C., Girling, SJ., Pizzi, R. and Martinez-Pereira, Y. (2011) Physiological (“Flow”) Murmurs are a Common Clinical Finding in Isoflurane Anaesthetised European Beavers (Castor fiber). European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), Lisbon, 1-5 June.
• Pizzi, R, Pocknell, A, Feltrer, Y, Routh, A, Gibson, R, Rendle, M, Boardman, W (2007) Metastatic vascular calcification in two captive female Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). 43rd International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animal, Edinburgh Zoo, 16-20 May.
• Connell, M., Pizzi, R., Giles, D., Devine, C., Martinez Pereira, Y., Davison, K., Tjolle, A. (2007) Cardiac silhoutte determination in wild Mute swans (Cygnus olor). 43rd International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animal, Edinburgh Zoo, 16-20 May.
• Gordon, J, Routh, A, Flach, E, Boardman, W, Clark, B, Pizzi, R (2007)Calodium hepaticum (Capillaria hepatica) in primates at the Zoological Society of London. 43rd International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animal, Edinburgh Zoo, 16-20 May.
• Smok, G, Hutchinson, C, Boardman, W, Clark, B, Pizzi, R (2007) Serology and histopathology in comparison to PCR as diagnostic tests for Ophidian paramyxovirus (OPMV). 43rd International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animal, Edinburgh Zoo, 16-20 May.
• Pizzi, R. (2001) Health care of captive Theraphosidae. Entomology 2001, International symposium “Insects and Disease”, Royal Entomological Society.

National Conference Posters
• Pizzi, R., Flach, E., Boardman, W., Routh, A., Cracknell, J., Clark, B., Wenger, S., Strike, T. (2006) I smell a rat: Capillaria hepatica infection in primates at the Zoological Society of London. BIAZA Annual Zoo Research Symposium, 24-25 July 2006, Colchester Zoo.
• Gouveia, A., Pizzi, R., Pearce-Kelly, P., MacFarlane, D., Clarke, D., Macgregor, S., Clarke, B., Boardman, W. (2006) Investigating causes of population decline in captive Partula clara and Partula tohiveana Polynesian snails. BIAZA Annual Zoo Research Symposium, 24-25 July 2006, Colchester Zoo.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Lethargic Locusts, weight-loosing Wetas, & perishing Partulas. Pathogen control in captive invertebrates of conservation importance. Federation of Zoological Societies (FZS) annual research meeting, July 2004, Edinburgh Zoo.
• Pizzi, R., Miller, J., George, S. (2002) Hindlimb amputation in an African Bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus). South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R., Breene, R.B., George, S. (2002) Veterinary diagnostics and care of tarantula (Theraphosidae) spiders. South African Veterinary Association Congress, Johannesburg.
• Pizzi, R., Uys, A. (2002) Dart gun sighting systems and optical scopes for wildlife veterinary use. British Veterinary Zoological Society Conference, “Standards, Welfare and Conservation in Zoo and Exotic Practice.Journal Letters
• Pizzi, R., Girling, S., Meredith, A., Fielding, M., Lyon, D., Redrobe, S., German, A. and Flach, E. (2006) Defining Exotic Animals, Veterinary Record 158(13):454.
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Treating dehydration in tarantulas (Theraphosidae). Veterinary Invertebrate Society, 2, 21, 2-7.
• Pizzi, R., Ezendam, T.  (2005) Spiders & sutures or, how to make wounds a whole lot worse! Veterinary Invertebrate Society, 2, 21, 18-20.
• Pizzi, R., Girling, S.J., Chitty, J.R. (2004) Parrots & TVs. The Veterinary Record, 154(26):832.
• Pizzi, R., McArthur, S. (2004) New chelonian euthanasia technique. The Veterinary Record, 154:19, 607-608.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Tierartzliche Betreuung von "Heimtier" - Avertebraten. DVG-Forum, 2/2004, 21-30pp (Translated by Kilian, S.).
• Pizzi, R., Meredith, A., Thoday, K.L., Walker, A. (2004) Ornithnyssus bacoti infestation on pets in the UK. The Veterinary Record, 154:18, 576.
• Pizzi, R. (2003) Anaesthesia and Surgery of Indian Reptiles. Veterinary Practitioner, 4, 2, 75-79.
• Pizzi, R. Carta, L., George, S. (2003) Oral nematode infection of tarantulas. The Veterinary Record, 152, 22: 695.
• Pizzi, R., Carta, L., Tansley, G., Gabriel, R., Matthews, A. (2003) An update on oral nematodes of tarantulas. BTS Journal, 19,1.
• Pizzi, R., van Wyk, W. (2003) Current concepts in reptilian and amphibian anaesthesia and surgery. Hooo-Hooo, Journal of the SAVA wildlife group Vol 7, No 1, 5-6.
• Pizzi, R. (2002) Cannabis ingestion in a chinchilla. The Veterinary Record, 150, 2, 55.
• Pizzi, R. (2002) Induction of autotomy in Theraphosidae spiders as a surgical technique. Veterinary Invertebrate Society, Vol 2, Issue 18, 2-6.
• Pizzi, R. (2002) Autotomy in Theraphosids: How to amputate your own leg if you're a spider! BTS Journal, Vol 17, No 3.
• Pizzi, R. (2001) The Great Food Debate: To feed or not to feed, wild caught food. BTS Journal, Vol 16, No 4. 
• Pizzi, R. (2001) Appeal for post-mortem specimens. BTS Journal, Vol 16, No 4.

Thesis:
• Pizzi, R. (2005) The influence of diet on mortality, disease incidence and reproductive success of a closed population of captive Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) over a forty year period. Dissertation for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) Diploma in Zoological Medicine (DZooMed)
• Pizzi, R. (2000) Investigation of Causes of Mortality in British Garden Birds by Post-Mortem Examination. MSc thesis, University of London.

Book reviews:
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Manual of Psittacine birds (2nd ed), Harcourt-Brown, N., Chitty, J., BSAVA. Veterinary Record.
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Australian Mammals, Biology and Captive Management. Jackson, S., CSIRO. BVZS Bulletin.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Veterinary Nursing of Exotic Pets, Girling, S., Blackwell publishing Ltd. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 31, 1.
• Pizzi, R. (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles, McArthur, S., Wilkinson, R., Meyer, J. Blackwell publishing Ltd. Veterinary Record.

Magazines and Other Publications:
• Pizzi, R. (2009) Obesity in Pet rabbits. Rabbiting On magazine.
• Pizzi, R. (2009) Keyhole surgery in rabbits. Rabbiting On magazine.
• Pizzi, R. (2008) Laser surgery in rabbits. Rabbiting On magazine.
• Pizzi, R. (2008) VHD Viral Haemorrhagic Disease. Rabbiting On magazine, Autumn 2008, 8-9
• Pizzi, R. (2008) Wired-up rabbit. Rabbiting On magazine, Summer 2008, 8-9
• Pizzi, R. (2007) Laparoscopic and minimally invasive surgery in pet rabbits. The Veterinary Review.
• Pizzi, R. (2006) Winnie-the-Pooh had a vet?! Veterinary Times
• Pizzi, R. (2005) Playing with penguins in Patagonia. Veterinary Times
• Pizzi, R., Carta, L. (2004) Emerging disease of captive tarantulas. World Association of Wildlife Veterinarians (WAWV), 14, 53/54, 3.
• Pizzi, R., Carta, L., George, S. (2004) Oral Nematode infection of tarantulas. Forum magazine of the ATS, Vol13,No 2, 71-72.
• Pizzi, R. (2003) Mystery of the disappearing vultures. Veterinary Times, Vol 33, No 12, 30.
• Pizzi, R. (2003) Health care and Diseases of Theraphosidae Spiders. Reptilian magazine, Vol. 6 No. 8, 18-20.
• Pizzi, R. (2002) Recognising when your pet reptile is ill. Reptilian magazine, Vol 6, No 7, 20-23.
• Pizzi, R. Ezendam, T. (2002) So much for sutures. Forum magazine of the ATS, Vol11, No 4, 122-123.